The newsletter of the Baltimore Bird Club

August/September 1996 - Online Edition


Deadline for next CHIP NOTES: August 25, 1996 (the next issue will be October/November 1996)
Send material to:
                   Steve Sanford
                   8412 Downey Dale Drive
                   Randallstown MD 21133
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Please help CHIP NOTES get out on time

Letter from the Editor

by Steve Sanford

Many thanks to our contributors! As you can see, our Chip Notes is getting a lot of material now, especially for this August-September issue. If your contribution is not in this issue, it is because I have saved it for the future based on space and time-relevance.

Now here is a plea. Since I suffer the curse of having to work five whole days a week (sympathy cards will be accepted), it takes me at least a week, probably more, after all the newsletter material is typed into my computer, to pound it into Chip Notes's Procrustean Bed and get it to the printer. It takes the printer at least a week to get the newsletters to Terry and Roberta Ross, who put on the mailing labels, and pack the newsletters to the Post Office's mysterious specifications. Even though they have always gotten them to the post office within a day or two (Thank you, Terry and Roberta!), it will be another 2 to 10 days or more before you get Chip Notes. In other words, the whole process takes almost a month from the date the last material is received and typed. Any late material delays the start of this process. The result is that Chip Notes may be late, and it may be your fault. Here is a list of recent contributors who were late:
Just kidding -- this time.

If you use a computer word processor, it really saves time if you send your material via e-mail as text, or as MS Word or WordPerfect (IBM-compatible) files, or mail it on a disc. Then I won't have to re-type it. Thank you very much to those who are already doing this.

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by Mary Gruver-Byers

On the weekend of June 7th, 8th & 9th, the Baltimore Bird Club played host to birders from around the world...yes WORLD to the 51st Annual Meeting of the Maryland Ornithological Society. (One participant came all the way from Guatemala just to join our fun.) The campus of the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) rolled out the welcome mat for the membership--doing everything they could to help all guests enjoy their stay. (They even took over registration on Friday evening so that all members could attend the dinner and keynote speech.) There was always someone available to dim lights, deliver messages, reset room and set up tables as needed. They couldn't have done a better job!!!

The circular campus with its easy access to I-95 and I-695 proved to be a winning combination with field trips flowing out in all directions. The general directions on how to get to most of the field trip locations which were included in the registration packet seem to be greatly appreciated by the out-of-towners as was the large area map which hung next to the sign-up sheets!!

230 registrants participated in approximately 40 fields trips that sent members from the borders of Pennsylvania to the southern tip of Maryland (Point Lookout), from the western edge of Howard County to the Chesapeake Bay, across Loop Road to the 93 acres of woodland and ponds on the campus itself, and biking up the North Central Trail. 139 species of birds were identified during the weekend with two of the most unusual being a Snow Goose at the Day's Cove area of the Gunpowder State Park, (this area is normally closed to the public, but we were granted access for the weekend), and a Black Skimmer at "Black Marsh" (North Point State Park). 24 species of warblers and all the possible swallow species were also reported. Fourteen brave souls withstood the shifting sands and 90+ heat of Hart-Miller Island on Saturday and were rewarded with a nice list of shorebirds.

The much awaited talk by Peter Dunne, the Director of the Cape May Bird Observatory in Cape May New Jersey was the highlight of Friday evening. (And it was really hard to top the buffet dinner of London Broil and fresh grilled Tuna!!!) The topic of Peter's talk was "SMALL HEADED FLYCATCHER SEEN YESTERDAY BUT NOT TOMORROW." The audience wandered the back roads of New Jersey with Peter as he told his "true???" story. Peter was even kind enough to hang around the book store to sign copies of his many works and chat with MOS members.

The raffle and silent auction were a great success thanks to the many generous members and organizations which donated items. Prizes for the raffle included a spotting scope, binoculars, a handmade quilt, a signed print of "Bud" Taylor's, bird feeder and stand, a bird statue and gift certificate to the Wild Bird Center. The spotting scope and binoculars were donated by the winners, Chan Robbins and John Malcom, to Marco Cerezo, the Director of Fundaeco, the environmental conservation program MOS has supported in Guatemala. A combined total of $1948.50 was brought in this year with the silent auction making over $1300 itself, the most money ever collected!!!!!! The proceeds will be donated to the restoration of the C&O Canal in the name of all MOS members.

For those of you who did not make the conference, you missed a good time! The weather was dry (but a bit hot), the food was good, and the friendships renewed or made fresh truly made the conference a success.

On a personal note I have to say a HUGE THANK YOU!!!!! to all the Baltimore Bird Club Members and MOS members who volunteered to help "do anything" (which I had them do), who pitched in whenever things needed done, who stood by and helped calm my nerves by saying "NO matter what happens, people will have a good time" (things did happen and people still had a good time), and who in general offered suggestions, ideas, and elbow grease without being asked. As I stated in the conference brochure, no one person runs a MOS conference on their own, and I was no exception! THANK YOU.

Mary Gruver-Byers Conference Coordinator (RETIRED)

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Two Thank You Notes

by Joy Wheeler

Thank You Note #1
Thanks for the 1996 MOS Convention
The splendid MOS Conference held this June is something of which BBC members can be justly proud. Mary Byers, our Hospitality Committee chair, chaired the Conference Committee. Her outstanding organizational skills were much in evidence, from assignment of overnight guests in the residence halls to management of the well-attended meetings in the University Center, all the way to the parking lots where field trip groups met to get started.

The many BBC members recruited by Mary to register guests and lead field trips stood out from the crowd, wearing the latest style in birding attire - T shirts decorated with our handsome logo. We were well represented also among the conference-goers, shoppers at the book store, silent auction bidders, and raffle winners.

Mary deserves a loud vote of thanks for carrying off our first conference in Baltimore in MOS's 51 years, and making it such an outstanding event.

Joy Wheeler

Thank You Note #2
And Thanks for last year's Conference, too
A whole year has gone by since we joined in the celebration of MOS's 50th year, and while neither Patsy Perlman nor I attended the anniversary conference we probably had the most fun getting ready for it, other than Don Messersmith, that is, who presented his well-researched history for all those in attendance.

Since the Baltimore Bird Club's history began with the history of the Maryland Ornithological Society we had to search back to the early years beginning in 1945, through the '50s and '60s when Patsy's membership began to the '70s where my consciousness of the club began, to the present. We knew we couldn't do this by ourselves so we invited some trusted sources to lunch at Cylburn: Jean Worthley, Erana Lubbert, Haven Kolb, Nancy Rowe, and Shirley Geddes. We taped our conversation over soup and fruit, listened to anecdotes and opinions to help us determine our course of research and how it should be presented.

The items began coming in: old photographs and slides, old histories written for earlier anniversaries, old memoirs, old newspaper clippings of the club's activities, columns about local birds - the first sighting of a house finch, for instance. The hardest part of the job was to choose not to include items. We did decide to display the news items in transparent paged notebooks; to focus on people influential in the early club; on programs designed to help educate the public about birds; our association with Cylburn and our Bird Museum; and our publications: Maryland Birdlife, the Baltimore Chapter Newsletter, and our current Chip Notes.

To present all this we used the notebooks, slides in a continuing slide projector, an audio tape of the memoirs of Lola Strack, a charter member. We selected some of our best photographs to make a large permanent display of the bird club's themes and purposes: Education, Preservation, and Cylburn, with ten photographs of Baltimore's Best Birding.

We recommend that these items be safely kept and occasionally added to for the generations to come of Baltimore Bird Club members and the celebration of the next 50 years of our history. As of now, one year later, I have returned all items to those who wanted them returned. I have marked the things we have kept "ARCHIVES, PLEASE KEEP," and placed them in a room next to the Bird Museum.

It is the purpose of this writing to acknowledge the contributions of our members who lent them to us: Erana Lubbert's news items and photos, some dated as early as 1951; Ben Poscover's slides of Junior Nature Camp; Martha Schaeffer's photos of early days with school children at Cylburn; Gladys Cole's slides of Irish Grove; Mark Pemburn's collection of Chip Notes.

May each of you who contributed to our 50th year display accept Patsy Perlman's and my thanks for their help. The permanent display, produced by Accent Displays, Inc. has been seen at various places around town during the year: Coastweeks at Rocky Point Park in September, Bird Day in March at the Maryland Science Center, Earth Day in April at Leakin Park, Migratory Bird Day at the National Aquarium in May, and the 51st MOS Conference in June at the University of Maryland Baltimore County.

Joy Wheeler

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Baltimore Bird Club and MOS STUFF FOR SALE

by Roberta Ross

We now have a supply of Baltimore Bird Club T-shirts with the oriole logo for sale, as well as the iron-on patches we have sold in the past. In addition, the new edition of the "Yellow Book" that was just published by the MOS may be purchased from your Baltimore chapter.

T-SHIRTS: if you attended the recent MOS Annual Conference, you may have noticed your field trip leaders were wearing a handsome T-shirt with a picture of a Baltimore Oriole. We have more of them for sale at $15 apiece. The shirt is light gray with the words "Baltimore Bird Club-MOS," and the oriole, of course, is orange and black. Bob Rineer is in possession of the T-shirts with intent to distribute, so make your connection with him.

YELLOW BOOK: The MOS recently published the third edition of "Field List of the Birds of Maryland" (familiarly known as "The Yellow Book") by Marshall J. Iliff, Robert F. Ringler, and James L. Stasz. Many of you have been using the second edition and know what a handy reference it is, with charts showing the frequency of each species throughout the year in Maryland; information about habitats, breeding, etc.; and columns for use as checklists. Well, the new version has even more information, including an expanded checklist section by county, for you county listers out there, and the old information has, of course, been updated to reflect observations made in the nineteen years since the second edition was published. Roberta Ross has a supply of Yellow Books, available for $2.00 apiece, and she will bring them to meetings at Cylburn and any field trips she's on. If you would like one mailed to you, the postage is $1.00 (the new edition is a little heavier than the last one, but still in a very compact format). Send your check for $3.00, payable to the Baltimore Bird Club, to

                                Roberta Ross
                                4128 Roland Ave
                                Baltimore MD 21211-2034
PATCHES: We still have a supply of the patches with the oriole logo. These iron-on patches look very nice on a hat, jacket, or pack. The patches are $3.50. Roberta Ross has them, and will mail them for 50 cents postage, so you may buy them from her in person for $3.50, or send your check for $4.00, payable to the Baltimore Bird Club.

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Revamped Phone Tree for Rare Bird Chasers

by Leanne Pemburn

The Baltimore Bird Club is revamping our phone tree for club members who are "chasers." When you sight a significant rarity, call one of the following members: Gene Scarpulla, Bob Ringler, or Leanne & Mark Pemburn. (And of course, report to the Baltimore BirdLine at 410-467-0653). These members will in turn notify those birders who have identified themselves as chasers of records -- state, county, and otherwise -- who have also agreed to spread the word on to others. If you are interested in chasing reported rarities and taking part in the phone tree, leave your name and number on the Baltimore Bird Line and you will be assigned a place in the call structure. In return for hearing the up-to-the-minute report, you will be asked to make two to three calls. It's like a chain letter, only the results are much better.

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BBC School Program

by Patsy Perlman

The School Program (Fall 1995-- Spring 1996) was very successful. Seventeen Baltimore City and County Schools participated in the twenty-five sessions, representing 1,290 students. Special thanks to our 21 wonderful and willing guides, who provided the stimulus for such a fine season.

The guides who deserve the accolades are

        Candy Andrejski    Sharon Dick      Carol Mula
        Mike Baker         Phyllis Gerber   Sue Patz
        Sally Bloomer      Linda Groff      Patsy Perlman
        Bill Bridgeland    Zlata Hartman    Anne Saverborn
        Mimi Cooper        Steve Hass
        Anne Allen Dandy   Jill Jones         and last, but not least
        Walter Dandy       Lenny Marcus       our supermentor --
        Lynn DeWitt        Berney Maddox    Joy Wheeler
On our "wish list": We would like someone to volunteer to man a scope (his own scope, or ours) during school classes. That would provide that extra expert excitement for children seeing birds "in the field." If you are interested in helping this stationary activity, Please call either Patsy Perlman or Joy Wheeler.

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Board of Directors Meetings

by Alan Bromberg, Recording Secretary

The BBC Board of Directors met on March 11, April 8, May 13, and June 10. At the March and April meetings, the board discussed and approved the budget for the 1996-97 year. At the March meeting, the board considered ideas for obtaining more publicity for the BBC. In March and May, the question of having someone take over the telephone tree for rare bird alerts from Peggy Bohanan was discussed, and a committee was selected to organize a new phone tree. A proposal to support the Teaming With Wildlife program was considered at the April meeting. This program would impose an excise tax on birding items to support wildlife preservation. The board defeated a motion to have the BBC send a letter in support of the program.

At the May meeting, the board heard reports on preparations for the MOS annual conference. The board also heard a report on the city's fiscal problems, which pose a serious threat to Cylburn Arboretum, and approved sending a letter to Mayor Schmoke opposing planned cuts in the Department of Parks and Recreation. The Board again considered a request from a professional musician for money to prepare a tape demonstrating how bird song was used in music. Additional information on the proposal was requested before the board would approve the expenditure. The board also considered the issue of high-use activity and development at county parks, particularly the problem of mountain bikes.

In June, the board unanimously voted a resolution of thanks to Mary Byers for her outstanding work as coordinator for the MOS conference. A committee was appointed to consider ideas for new field trips for the 1996-97 year. The board approved a motion to spend the $500 included in the budget under education to support the attendance of several children at the Carrie Murray Camp this summer, The disposition of copies of the new yellow book and BBC T-shirts remaining from the state conference was discussed, and the board agreed to put the items up for sale to members. The board discussed revision and publication of both the Baltimore County checklist, which was prepared quickly for use at the state conference, and the proposed site guide. The board also was informed that Bob Rineer will conduct bird surveys of the various sections of Gunpowder State Park and is requesting members to assist him.

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Postcard from the Edge

by Hank Kaestner

April 9, 1996

This card is not quite from the "edge" as Singapore is a modern cosmopolitan city-state. It does offer a glimpse of the future, for development and "progress" have eliminated much of the bird habitat here, and typical S.E. Asian forest birds like hornbills, barbets, pittas, etc. have been extirpated. About the only readily seen birds here are house crows (introduced from India), common myna birds, Pacific swallows, koels (a large black, ani-sized cuckoo that is difficult to see, but its "KO-EL KO-EL call is heard often), white-throated kingfishers, and brahminy kites flying overhead. The best place for birds is the Jurong bird park, the world's largest bird zoo. Along with the hundreds of captive birds (such as the macaws on this card) one can find wild black-naped orioles, white-breasted waterhens, tailorbirds, prinias sunbirds, and others.

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Postcard From Over the Edge

by Hank Kaestner

April 22, 1996

I'm writing from Katmandu, Nepal, an over-the-edge destination I've wanted to visit for a long time. One morning I climbed a 9000 foot mountain, and from the top had a magnificent view of Mt. Everest to the east. It was spectacular. Also spectacular was the number of birds here. The brightly colored Nepal and Mrs. Gould's sunbirds were feeding in the flowers. Most conspicuous family of birds are the babblers of which I saw about 25 species including white-throated, red-headed, blue-winged, striated, and streaked laughing thrushes. Prettiest jay was the Red-billed Magpie-jay.

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In the Right Place at the Right Time

by Nancy Rowe

On the sixteenth of July, 1995, two storms converged thunderously over Cockeysville and raged violently through Broadmead. Their near-hurricane force and four and a quarter inches of rain seemed enough to blow and wash us away.

Earlier, it had been dinner hour for a male hummingbird, followed by a bill-wiping and preening session in my sugar maple sapling. Twig-sitting quietly now, he kept a "whether eye" skyward for life-threatening silhouettes; but before long it was the other "weather" which engaged his eye.

Had he sensed a change, or did the gentle rain remind him of the shower he had taken last week in this same tree? Selecting a slender leaf stem open to the heavens, he alighted, fluffed his feathers, vibrated his wings, tilted back his head, turned his tiny body this way and that, and basked in cool, glorious wetness. This he repeated on other perches. A brisk breeze seemed to add to his pleasure. He was the embodiment of joy.

Quickly, the breeze became wind, the wind became whirlwind, the storm pounced on the hummer as fast as a cat, and there was no escaping it. The maple bent grotesquely.

Every leaf and branch yielded to the violence; but the petite, eighth-of-an-ounce figure held fast to a twig he had found near the trunk.

His strength lay in his wings of no avail; it now resided in his little feet. They grasped the perch with vise-like grip. As he perched, bill to zenith pointing, wings skin-tight and feathers oiled from previous preening, the water flowed from tip of bill to stub of tail. He presented not at all the contours of a bird, but rather those of a large, dark, glistening teardrop.

Amid the tortured foliage, this speck of life stood tall, unmoving and unmoved, defying Nature's test of strength and perseverance -- for thirty l-o-n-g minutes -- until the storm had passed.

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Walking on the Trail on a Snowy Morning

By Joy Wheeler

Whose tracks they were I do not know
Big and solid, deep in snow
Dogged, I followed, O so slow!
'Til turning sharply, some 90 degrees
They planted themselves firmly in the freeze
Obedient to the drift of these
Directions I raised my sights to tangled tree
Thinking how unlikely I would see
The hoped-for sum of printed instructions: a bird.
Was that a shout you thought you heard?
Not from me. I know how to be hushed
In the face of Winter's Hermit Thrush
But I was thinking as much.

--February and May, 1996

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by Roberta Ross

It's time to send in your yearly membership dues. Please send them in the dues envelope included with this Chip Notes. If you have any questions, or if the envelope was not included, please contact our Membership Secretary:
              Roberta Ross
              4128 Roland Ave
              Baltimore MD 21211-2034
Dues are $20 for an individual or $30 for a household.

New members who joined after April 30, 1996, and paid a full year's dues at that time, have already paid for the 1996-97 membership year and do not have to pay any further dues now.

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Field Trip Reports

compiled by Mark Pemburn

At this time of the year, my mailbox starts to fill: crowding out even the pervasive junk mail are the long white envelopes bearing the M.O.S. logo in the corner, signifying the spring invasion of the field trip reports. Space permits only the first half of the reports this issue. I'll present the rest in October. Here we go:

February 10 - A partly cloudy day in the 40s at the tailend of a winter that couldn't end soon enough. Jim Wilkinson led a group of 15 for some field birding at New Design Rd and environs in Frederick County. Among the 43 species were the hoped-for Lapland Longspurs, Brown Creeper and Kinglets at Nolan's Ferry and singing White-crowned and Tree Sparrows at Burkittsville.

March 10 - A cold day at the lake -- 15 at the start of Steve Simon's trip to Loch Raven and rising only to the high 30s by noon. The four shivering souls on the trip managed to turn up 23 species including two Bald Eagles and three Red-necked Grebes. They also enjoyed good looks at all three species of Mergansers.

March 24 - A brisk day in the 40s for the season's first Cylburn Self-Guided trip. Joe Lewandowski reports that Cylburn reveals a different character to those familiar with the thick vegetation of spring and summer. A dozen people enjoyed the walk and were treated to looks at a Red-tailed Hawk perched near the mansion and a pair of Wood Ducks in the pond at the bottom of the hill. A total of 18 species were recorded.

March 30 - Good weather for a day at Piney Run in Carroll County with Burton Alexander. Eight birders made the trip and were able to tally 42 species despite having to peer amid the boats participating in the fishing tournament that same day. This probably accounts for the paucity of waterfowl (only four species of duck) though they did get a good look at a Horned Grebe. They also turned up a Fox Sparrow and a Red-breasted Nuthatch in the surrounding woods.

March 30-31 - The same day as the Piney Run trip was the first of two days on the Eastern Shore of Delaware and Maryland guided by Steve Sanford. Steve's trips are ambitious and wide-ranging with the goal being either to see as many species as possible or to die trying. Thus far, the former has been more the rule than the latter and on this trip the total was 104 species of birds, no deaths.

The trip began at Cape Henlopen (DE) and made stops at Indian River Inlet, Ocean City Inlet, 4th Street Flats, West O.C. Pond and then the long leap to Deal Island - the first day. The O.C. stops earned the band of six numerous good looks at Northern Gannets as well as Harlequin Ducks, Surf and Black Scoters and Common Eiders. The next day covered more of Deal Island (where they had Short-eared Owl and Rough-legged Hawk) followed by stops in west Wicomico County and Elliot Island.

March 31 - The next installment of the Cylburn Self-Guided series took place on a sunny day that rose into the 50s. Joe walked the trails with four others and tallied some 23 species in the process.

April 2 - Another sunny day but the temperature dropped and the winds increased. Jean Worthley's Lake Roland trip attracted 19 birders who put in a great deal of work to garner their 21 species. Among the highlights were the discovery of a Chickadee nesting cavity and a good look at a Red-necked Grebe - a bird that has been ubiquitous in larger bodies of water this season.

April 4 - A couple of days later, Jean led another group (this time with 26 people in attendance) through the trails at Cylburn. The weather was described as "perfect" and the throng was treated to good looks at a Red-shouldered Hawk, early butterflies and woodland flora. 22 species of birds were recorded in all.

April 9 - "Miserable weather, good birds" wrote Shirley Geddes of her trip to Lake Roland on this date. Only four people turned out in the rain and overcast but the tally was a respectable 33 species despite all. Highlights include Blue-winged Teal, Palm Warbler, Swamp Sparrow and Red-necked Grebe.

April 11 - The sun was shining but the wind was still a force to be reckoned with. Jean Worthley's Cylburn journey with 15 of the faithful peered and pished 15 species onto the record with hope for birdier days to come.

April 14 - An overcast day to begin with but later in the morning the sun broke over the forest as Joe Lewandowski and nine others completed the next Cylburn Self-Guided trip. Among the 23 species counted were Cedar Waxwings (abundant this spring), White-throated Sparrows and Common Grackles. April 16 - Isn't there some kind of saying about April and showers? The nine birders who accompanied Matilda Weiss to Lake Roland on this spring day didn't let the rain stop them from seeing 50 species, however. Among the highlights were numerous Ruby-crowned Kinglets.

April 18 - Today's trip to Cylburn was a special one: Mike Baker had set up a banding station that permitted the twenty members of Jean Worthley's Thursday morning trip to get close-up looks at birds we seldom see except through a glass. Among the birds caught in the nets were White-throated and Song Sparrows, Juncos, and Robins. Twenty-four species were tallied for the trip. Editor's Note: Bird Club members who are interested in combining field trips with activities such as this should make their wishes known to the board. Please watch the Activities schedule in Chip Notes for additional information that may become available after the publication of our annual program booklet.

April 20 - Humid, a word we will come to know well in the ensuing months, is how Bob Rineer described the day of his trip to Back River. The twelve birders made a day-list of 59 species, including what was hoped to be a Lesser Black-backed Gull, when they encountered Gene Scarpulla at the outflow pier. Gene later reported that further study of the bird had turned it back into a Great Black-backed (*sigh*).

April 21 - We are starting to get into the most exciting time of year for many birders - the spring migration season - when it seems as if anything can happen. On this beautiful day of the Cylburn Self-Guided tour, eleven birders were treated to what, for many was a life bird: a solitary Evening Grosbeak near one of the feeders. In addition to this stellar sighting, the group reported Black-and-white Warbler, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher and Pileated Woodpecker among the total of 20 species

April 23 - With the warming of the migration season, so comes the warming of the air. The temperature rose into the 80s this day at Lake Roland as Shirley Geddes led 28 birders around the loop. Among the 58 species recorded was a lone Rusty Blackbird who was, unfortunately, seen by only a few.

April 25 - Clouds obscured the sun for the most part during this well-attended perambulation at Cylburn (31 people!). Jean Worthley help them locate 25 species

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Good Birds

by Steve Sanford

Just as Chip Notes is going to press we have received reports of a Northern Lapwing at Bombay Hook, Delaware. This European shorebird is extremely uncommon in North America. According to Armas Hill, there have only been 9 sightings in North America since 1988. The last one in Delaware was in 1953. This species also has the rare-for-a-shorebird virtue of being very easy to identify. Unfortunately, as of press time, it appears to have stayed for only July 7 and 8, along with a Little Stint.

Incidentally, a Northern Lapwing was the subject of one of the most impressive pieces of birding fanaticism I've ever heard of. A pair of Vermont birders I talked to a few years ago told me that a Northern Lapwing showed up in a remote corner of New Brunswick (Canada) a few years back. They drove up one weekend to see it -- 14 hours of driving, one way -- but they didn't find it. They had to get back to work (the "curse of the birding class"), so they had to go home. Undaunted, the next weekend they did the long drive again, and this time they did find it. That was a total of 56 hours of driving to see one rare bird! Bombay Hook is a lot closer.

On May 3 and 4 an extraordinary 30+ Anhingas were seen at a pond in central Calvert County. This species has scarcely ever been seen in Maryland, so this was rather amazing. Local residents claimed these birds had been coming there for years, sparking speculation that this may be the northernmost breeding colony of Anhingas in the United States. Unfortunately, the same (highly reputable) birders who did see them on May 3 and 4 did not see them later. Still, it was a remarkable avian visit.

There is a lot of justifiable concern about the decline of migrant bird species, but most birders I've talked to agree that migration was unusually good this spring, especially in early May.

Bad weather often makes for good birding. During the second week of May a rather gloomy stationary front dominated the weather, but it had the effect of trapping warblers and other delightful species in our area at the peak of migration. Magnolia Warblers and Rose-breasted Grosbeaks seemed to be especially abundant. It was not too hard to find 15 to 20 species of warblers that week in or near Baltimore in one day.

In May, there's no place like home.

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Breakfast with the Birds at Cylburn

by Joy Wheeler

Sunday, September 15 Breakfast at 8:00 AM; birding starts at 8:30, We'll begin our fall series of Sunday morning walks at Cylburn with cold fruit juices, hot tea and coffee, and warm pastries, just right to give us a good start for the fall birding season. If you want to come to the breakfast, call Joy Wheeler for reservations by September 13.

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The Most Important Bird in the World

by Alan Bromberg

I admit it - I'm a fanatic. I'm not a county lister, but when it comes to my life list, I am a zealot. When I started birding, I swore I'd never do things like drive all day in pursuit of one sparrow, but I do it all the time now. With all that chasing, the numbers started to add up, and early last year I found myself within striking distance of 500. Five Hundred. There was something mystical about the number. It was the Holy Grail. It was an Olympic gold medal. It was winning the New Hampshire primary. It was a bird lister's bar mitzvah, a coming of age. Just 35 birds short, and I was going to South Texas on a Field Guides trip. The checklist included more than 35 species that I needed. I couldn't fail to make it - or could I?

Trip leader John Arvin, a superb birder, collected us at Corpus Christi airport and drove us to Rockport, where I advanced one bird closer to my goal - Neotropic Cormorant. Day 2 added five more species. Each day increased the count, but there were three big misses: Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl, Tropical Parula, and Mexican Crow. Mexican species that might have offset the misses, such as Masked Duck, stubbornly stayed home. It was a nine-day trip, and as Day 8 dawned, I was four species short. Near Falcon Dam, John produced a reserve Pygmy-Owl. Then three raucous Brown Jays brought me to 498. Unless the infrequently-seen Muscovy Duck (the real one from Mexico, not the feral nuisance variety) appeared, the only possibility left was the Red-billed Pigeon. Could I really go home just one or two species short of the magic number?

By mid-day, it was searingly hot, and we returned to the motel in Zapata to siesta until late afternoon. While everyone else relaxed, I took my binoculars and ambled down to Falcon Lake. I found egrets, cormorants, peeps, Killdeer, and - what was this? It was a plover, but not any plover I'd ever seen. It looked like an Upland Sandpiper would look if it was a plover. Cautiously I stalked the bird, memorizing every field mark, the placement of every feather. Checking my Peterson, I confirmed what I already knew - Mountain Plover, Number 499. I could still make it! When we reassembled later, I announced my find and told John that the Red-billed Pigeon was now the most important bird in the world. John was most obliging; the hunt was on. We tried an overlook above the Rio Grande near Zapata where Red-billed Pigeon are often seen. No. We checked stands of cottonwoods along the highway where the Pigeons often roost. No. We tried a dirt road the pigeons often fly over en route to their roosts across the Rio Grande. No. Finally, we called it a day. We would bird the Santa Margarita ranch before the trip ended the next morning, and the ranch was supposed to be a good spot for the most important bird in the world.

Early on the next morning, we stood on a bluff above the Rio Grande at the ranch, scanning the trees and the sky. Great Kiskadees and Golden-fronted Woodpeckers chattered noisily, Summer Tanagers gleamed in the morning sun, cormorants and terns flapped past, ducks floated in the river, hawks soared overhead. Birds everywhere, but no Red-billed Pigeons. The tension mounted; everyone was pulling for me. Occasionally someone would cry, "There!" but it was only a Mourning Dove. My stomach tied itself into a knot; sweat burst forth on my forehead. Had it come to this, my whole birding career hanging on a purple pigeon? Shouldn't number 500 be something beautiful or exotic? What if it showed up on the Mexican side of the river, where I couldn't count it?

John looked through his scope. After a while. he gravely announced, "I think I've got one." I held my breath. The rest of the group stood back to allow me the first look. I peered through the scope, adjusted the focus, and there it was - The Most Important Bird in the World! North of the river! Number 500! I stepped back, wiped the sweat from my brow, and exclaimed, "That's IT!" My fellow birders cheered and applauded, then took turns viewing the pigeon. When everyone had seen it, I returned to the scope to admire the noble bird and mentally send it a message of eternal gratitude. It was time to leave. As we walked to the van, a shadow revealed the presence of a bird overhead. We looked up, and perhaps fifty feet above there soared majestically a Red-billed Pigeon!

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The Gulf Coast Revisited

Catherine Pinckard

After my article on birding at Dauphin Island, Alabama appeared in Chip Notes (Number 305), I was asked how Dauphin Island compares to the better known "hot spot" at High Island, Texas, and the Baton Rouge Audubon Society's refuge at Holly Beach, Louisiana. This year (1996) my husband and I visited all three during April, spending several days at each place.

The Houston Audubon Society's High Island Sanctuary was crowded with birders from as far away as England and California. It was often congested and noisy from "people-speak." We saw one species at High Island that we did not see at Dauphin Island.

The Baton Rouge Audubon Society's refuges at Holly Beach, directly on the Gulf of Mexico, were not at all crowded during the week, the woods were more open than those at High Island and the trees were not as tall. The birding was most enjoyable. A highlight was a splendid male Cerulean Warbler feeding at eye level, or slightly higher, for twenty minutes. We saw no birds at Holly Beach that we did not see at the other two locations.

Dauphin Island was again a delight. On our first day there we were in the midst of a wave of migrants - not a "fall-out" because the weather was excellent. For three days we enjoyed scores of Hooded Warbles fluttering around near the ground like yellow and black butterflies. Lots of Kentucky, Prothonotary and Worm-eating Warblers, both waterthrushes, and Ovenbirds and three species of thrushes joined in. Again we had the moving carpet of blue - Indigo Buntings and Blue Grosbeaks feeding on the seed we broadcast on the ground. This year both Painted Buntings and Rose-breasted Grosbeaks added color to the carpet. Overhead there was a good variety of other migrants.

High Island probably deserves its reputation. But like other places and things, fame can be a disadvantage. High Island is a long drive from Baltimore.

The Louisiana sanctuaries preserve a small but important resource for migrating birds. Miles of similar habitat are not readily accessible to birders. These places are also a long way from Baltimore.

For closer-to-home early Spring birding, I again recommend Dauphin Island, Alabama.

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Big Bend National Park, Texas

by Jim Highsaw and Linda Prentice

We visited Big Bend National Park during May 11 - 16, 1996 for six days of birding, hiking, and photography. Located in southwest Texas, this 800,000 acre park is comprised of desert, the Chisos Mountains which reach 7,800 feet in height, and the Rio Grande River valley. Birders know it as the place to find the Colima Warbler (which nests in the mountains) as well as 424 other species of birds (many of them migrants) which have been seen in the park.

Using the park lodge in the Chisos Basin as a base, we covered most of the main birding areas in the park (the Chisos Basin, Rio Grande Village and campground, Dugout Wells, Old Ranch, Government Spring, and Castolon). The Basin, and especially Window Trail, was a good area for Rufous-sided and Canyon Towhee, Ash-throated Flycatcher, Cactus Wren, and Blue-throated Hummingbird. The Rio Grande village campground and picnic areas held Vermilion Flycatcher, Ladder-backed and Golden-fronted Woodpecker, Blue Grosbeak, Painted Bunting, Virginia's Warbler, Roadrunner, Verdin, Lark Sparrow, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher, and Lucifer Hummingbird. Dugout Wells, a small desert oasis with trees and a windmill, was a magnet for birds, including Wilson's Warbler, Varied Bunting, Bell's Vireo, Common Yellowthroat, and Yellow-rumped Warbler. Old Ranch, with its trees and water, attracted Yellow-breasted Chat, Summer Tanager, and Varied Bunting.

The Santa Elena Canyon Trail, a beautiful hike near Castolon, had Black Phoebe, White-throated Swift, and Canyon Wren. At the Park Visitors Center at Panther Junction we had fine looks at Black-throated Sparrow, Pyrrhuloxia, and Curve-billed Thrasher. One of the highlights of the trip was the long uphill hike on Day 4 to the Laguna Meadow and Boot Spring area to look for the Colima Warbler. Although we did not find the warbler, the hike had other rewards, including Western and Hepatic Tanager, Acorn Woodpecker, Wilson's Warbler, Hutton's Vireo, and marvelous views.

The park can be reached by flying to Midland/Odessa Texas, renting a car, and then driving the remaining 220 miles to the park. The lodge is in a beautiful location at 5400' elevation and makes a fine base for day hiking or car trips to the outlying birding areas. There is an informative guidebook, updated recently, to the birding areas and birds in the park. We saw some of the birds we had previously seen in Southeast Texas or New Mexico, and also added 17 species to our life lists. We hope to return to find the Colima Warbler!

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Back Yard Birding


Thanks to a tip from Jean Worthley, BYB contacted octogenarian Walter "Waldo" Ives of Riderwood to obtain yet another bird tale from the winter of '96. (Waldo's second nickname "The Back, Back Roads Kid" is partly due to his biennial Honda scooter exploration of the British Isles and Europe). Waldo enjoys feeding his birds by utilizing his large back porch which is roofed and sideless.

Last February Waldo observed a scruffy looking, slow moving, squirrel amble onto the porch. The sickly looking animal found a dish of sunflower seeds and began eating. At this point, Waldo left to answer the phone. Upon his return he was stunned to see a Red-tailed hawk sitting on the porch floor consuming the hapless squirrel. The hawk remained positioned there for over an hour. When at last the bird flew away, Waldo examined the area. There was very little left except a couple of "bitty scraps" which were easily removed with a "sweep of the broom."

On March 2, about 5:30 P.M., in the yard of her Lutherville home, Matilda Weiss observed her husband inadvertently flush a large dark bird. Matilda followed the bird's flight as it disappeared around the corner of their rancher. Her immediate impression was that "this bird looked different." She'd also heard a sound on its take-off (described by the National Geographic and Peterson Field Guides as a whistling or twittering sound made by its short, rounded wings -- have you identified this bird yet?)

Matilda calculated that the bird had landed outside one of their bedroom windows. She raced through the house to that room, anxiously peered through the window, and was thrilled to see that she had successfully charted the bird's flight. He was clearly in view on the ground, about 10 feet from the house: A WOODCOCK!

Matilda watched in fascination for the next 20 minutes as this unusual bird moved through her yard. He placed his feet with great deliberation. It seemed to Matilda that he was "feeling" the ground. Along with this distinctive foot movement, the Woodcock's long bill was probing the ground while turning over leaves and other plant debris. The bird finally flew away when the neighbor's dog came noisily onto the scene.

The Birder's Handbook, (Ehrlich, Dobkin and Wheye), characterize the Woodcock's foot work as "stamping." Apparently, this distinctive movement helps the bird find its prey (primarily worms). F. M. Chapman, in his Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America, says that the Woodcock's probing produces holes called "borings." The same borings may be used by any other Woodcock that may be feeding in the same area. Chapman also reports that in the late 1800s, "Gordon Trumbull discovered that the Woodcock can move the tip of its upper mandible independently of the lower one, and this organ is made to act like a finger, to assist the bird in drawing its food from the ground."

Sherry Trabert, a Cylburn volunteer, was encouraged by Joy Wheeler to share the following experiences with BYB: "In Oct. of '95 a Brown Thrasher appeared and has spent the winter very near our house. It visits the pond often and spends a good deal of time under a Holly tree about six feet from the back porch. During the blizzard in January, we were doing most of our feeding from the back porch. The Thrasher came up on the porch to feed regularly ... he is still feeding there (3/12) ... on February 17th of this year, after a snow storm ... a Great Blue Heron landed in the yard and took himself right over to the pond for a little snack. We felt mixed emotions that day, but the goldfish survived and I got a great photo op. We can hardly wait to see what's next."

Midge Nelson of Ruxton reported a Fox sparrow who survived a crash into her window. It took him over an hour to recover but he finally flew away. Midge has also entertained 4 Pine Siskins and a Carolina wren that likes to poke in black oil sunflower seeds.

On March 29, Chis Cooper saw an albino Red-tailed hawk at Joppa and Bellona in the Riderwood area.

Have you noticed some unexpected eating habits from the birds that visit your yard? Several birders, including Midge Nelson, have noticed that Juncos seem to love niger seed. These little "Snowbirds" not only gobble it up from the ground, but seem to be comfortable perching and eating from the tube feeders that hold this delicacy. Mourning doves have also been seen, bodies hanging over the edge of the narrow tray, picking niger seed out of the tiny feeder hole. During the last week of April, the Mayses of Reisterstown noticed that their niger feeder had an Indigo Bunting sitting and eating with the Goldfinches. During April, Peter Dans of Cockeysville had an Indigo Bunting at his mixed seed feeder for several days.

From Winand Elementary, Randallstown: 5th grader Kory Kutch reported a male Downy in the school courtyard eating suet. 11-year-old Corey Walters and his dad observed Killdeer flying around the school during the 3rd week of March. In previous years these birds have laid and successfully hatched eggs on the flat stone roof of the school, so the Walters are keeping a close watch to see what develops. Corey also observed a Sharpie that has been hunting in the courtyard at school. Corey and his dad put up a bird house this year and are happy to report that a Chickadee has already started a nest (4/29).

Five years ago Carol Chaney, secretary at Winand Elementary, and her husband installed a 3-foot pond in their back yard. They added some goldfish, and the pretty little things were thriving until the summer of '95, when the Webbs noticed fish disappearing at an alarming rate. Carol suspected some neighborhood children were involved; however, the kids were proven to be innocent when Carol's neighbor observed Crows dive bombing the pond and easily plucking the goldfish out of the water. Carol watched carefully over the next weekend and sure enough, she caught the culprits in action. This spring/summer the Webbs covered their pond with netting and so far the goldfish have remained untouched.

Anne Higgins, an English teacher from Seton-Keough High School, enjoyed a great tree in Emmitsburg during April. It contained a Baltimore Oriole, Indigo bunting, Scarlet Tanager, Yellow warbler, and a Dickcissel. At home in Windsor, Anne enjoyed a Ruby-throated hummer on 4/27 and Towhees for the first time ever. At school she's been watching a pair of Red-tailed hawks at their nest. The school grounds also has a pair of Kestrels, but she hasn't been able to locate their nest cavity yet.

Karen Lippy writes: "In 1985 a female Mallard dropped into the enclosed courtyard at Dover High School (Hanover PA). She wandered around looking things over, and then to everyone's surprise, she built a nest. When the eggs hatched, the school doors were opened, and Mamma Mallard led her young down the hall, out the front door, and down to a stream. She, or an offspring, has returned every year since to repeat the process. In this protected area every nesting has been successful. That's no dumb duck!." Karen also reports that she has found an active Raven nest in York county.

Shirley Geddes relates the following story: "My husband and I were in downtown Towson on May 6. We saw a man delicately carrying a tissue box. The box contained a Ruby-throated Hummingbird; alive, but stunned. We took the bird and started making urgent phone calls. Help was found. Covering the tissue box with a cloth to keep the bird calm and warm, we rushed to the home of Gerta Deterer in Dundalk. Gerta gently took the beautiful male hummer from the box and put its beak in a hypodermic needle containing a formula she prepares specially for hummers. Thankfully, the bird immediately started lapping the liquid with its long tongue. Gerta felt the the prospects for recovery were 99%."

Irma Weinstein "had the thrill of having an Indigo bunting at her feeder...." She's hoping that the bird will nest in her area. For over half an hour in mid May, Margaret Mays of Woodensburg watched a Pectoral sandpiper and a Snipe poking along the edge of her pond. She was in her car which was parked less than 20 ft. from the birds. Thirty feet above the same spot, she also observed an Orchard oriole building a nest. The Mayses put up a Kestrel box in June and in no time at all a pair moved in.

Joy Wheeler writes: " I usually "cheat" a little and instead of reporting on my "backyard birds" tell you what I've seen at the Northampton Furnace Trail site, a far richer birding area with its deep forest, swamps, lake, and shore habitats. But there have been two happenings in my own backyard that I must put on record: a Scarlet Tanager singing one morning at the end of May, and a Wood Thrush one afternoon for an hour and a half in mid-June. My ten year old grandson was there to share the Scarlet Tanager with me. There was no one around to share the Wood Thrush, so I share it with you. This is not my first backyard Scarlet Tanager, but my second. It is my first backyard Wood Thrush. Is it a sign that I am doing something right in my yard? I'm sure my neighbors don't think so, but I highly value the opinion of the Wood Thrush and the Scarlet Tanager, wouldn't you?"

Let us hear about your Back Yard birding too. Call or write

                  Gail Frantz
                  13955 Old Hanover Rd.
                  Reisterstown MD 21136

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by Ben Poscover

Spring migration is over and you have been delighted at seeing the birds that it brings. Now leaves are on the trees and birds have established their territories. Viewing them has become more difficult. You know that birds are present because you can hear them, but the bird that you are trying to identify is always behind a leaf.

This brings you to the next step in birding: identifying bird songs and calls. This will add another dimension to your birding. As you enjoy re-identifying old friends and recognizing new ones by sight, you will be equally delighted in being able to recognize some by their songs and calls.

There are several aids that are available to assist you in this endeavor: field guides, tapes, videos, etc. One of the more satisfactory strategies is to associate some type of mnemonic with the bird sounds that you hear. For example, some birds seem to identify themselves by "saying" their names such as the Carolina Chickadee with its "chickadee-dee-dee" sound. Others have distinct sounds such as the "drink-your-tea" of the Rufous-sided Towhee. Blending these sound helpers with the songs and calls of birds is both fun and helpful.

Following is a list of 53 that might assist you in getting started. These sound types were gleaned from a variety of sources. Field guides usually have helpers like these somewhere in the narrative. Tapes such as Richard Walton and Robert Lawson's *Birding by Ear* use them (in fact, some of the headings of this list are from their program). Some come from individuals who use this device in teaching. Rob Mardiney of Irvine Nature Center sent me a list of those he uses, and I have incorporated them into this effort. As you continue birding, you will enjoy making up your own helpers. One thing about them is that they are a great aid in learning bird sounds.

Good birding!

         BIRD       |        CALL OR SONG       |     GROUP
                    |                           |
   Acadian          |  Pizza                    | Flycatcher
   Flycatcher       |                           |
                    |                           |
   Alder Flycatcher |  Fee-beeo                 | Flycatcher
                    |                           |
   American Kestrel |  Killy, killy, killy,     | Described by phrases
                    |  killy, killy             | or sounds
                    |                           |
   American Robin   |  Cheerup, cheerily,       | Robin and Robin-like
                    |  cheerup, cheerup,        | songs
                    |  cheerup, cheerily        |
                    |                           |
   Barred Owl       |  Who cooks for you, who   | Described by phrases
                    |  cooks for you all        | or sounds
                    |                           |
   Black-and-white  |  weese, weese, weese,     | Warbler
   Warbler          |  weese,                   |
                    |                           |
   Black-billed     |  Cu cu cu cucucu cucucu   | Sound its own name
   Cuckoo           |  cucucu                   |
                    |                           |
   Black-throated   |  See, see, see, see, SEE  | Warbler
   Blue Warbler     |                           |
                    |                           |
   Black-throated   |  Trees, tress, murmuring  | Warbler
   Green Warbler    |  trees  OR                |
                    |  1, 2, 3  I'm lazy        |
                    |                           |
   Blue Jay         |  Jay, jay, jay            | Sounds its own name
                    |                           |
   Bobwhite         |  Bob-white, Bob-white     | Sounds its own name
                    |                           |
   Carolina         |  Chickadee-dee-dee-dee    | Sounds its own name
   Chickadee        |                           |
                    |                           |
   Carolina Wren    |  Teakettle, teakettle,    | Described by phrases
                    |  teakettle                | or sounds
                    |                           |
   Chestnut-sided   |  Very, very pleased to    | Warbler
   Warbler          |  meet-cha                 |
                    |                           |
                    |                           |
   Common Nighthawk |  Beans-beans              | Described by phrases
                    |                           | or sounds
   Common           |  Witch-ity, witch-ity,    | Warbler
   Yellowthroat     |  witch-ity                |
                    |                           |
   Eastern Bluebird |  Cheer, cheerful, charmer | Described by
                    |                           | phrases or sounds
                    |                           |
   Eastern          |  Spring of the year       | Described by phrases
   Meadowlark       |                           | or sounds
                    |                           |
   Eastern Phoebe   |  Phoe-bee                 | Sounds its own name
                    |                           |
   Eastern Wood     |  Peee-a-weeee             | Sounds its own name
   Pewee            |                           |
                    |                           |
   Great-crested    |  Wheeeeep-wheeeeep!       | Flycatcher
   Flycatcher       |                           |
                    |                           |
   Gray Catbird     |  Meow of a cat            | Name description of
                    |                           | call or song
   Indigo Bunting   |  Fire, fire! Where,       | Described by phrases
                    |  where? Here, Here! Put-  | or sounds
                    |  it-out, put-it-out!      |
                    |                           |
   Killdeer         |  Kill-dee, Kill-dee       | Sounds its own name
                    |                           |
   Laughing Gull    |  ha-ha-ha-hahaha-hahaha   | Name description of
                    |                           | call or song
                    |                           |
   Least Flycatcher |  Che-bec, che-bec         | Flycatcher
                    |                           |
   Mourning Dove    |  Ooah, cooo, cooo, cooo   | Name description of
                    |                           | call or song
                    |                           |
   Nashville        |  Seebit, seefit, seebit,  | Warbler
   Warbler          |  seebit, tititititi       |
                    |                           |
   Northern         |  What-cheer, what-cheer,  | Described by phrases
   Cardinal         |  what-cheer               | or sounds
                    |                           |
   Northern Flicker |  Flicka, flicka, flicka,  | Sounds its own name
                    |  flicka                   |
                    |                           |
   Northern Oriole  |  Here, here, come right   | Described by phrases
                    |  here, dear               | or sounds
                    |                           |
   Northern         |  Nice old ladies don't    | Warbler
   Waterthrush      |        choo choo          |
                    |                           |
   Olive-sided      |  Quick, three beers!      | Flycatcher
   Flycatcher       |  Come right here!         |
                    |                           |
   Ovenbird         |  Teacher, teacher,        | Warbler
                    |    TEACHER, TEACHER       |
                    |                           |
   Prairie Warbler  |  Zee, zee, zee, zee, zee  |       Warbler
                    |              (up scale)   |
                    |                           |
   Red-eyed Vireo   |  Do you see it? Do you    | Vireo
                    |  hear it? Do you believe  |
                    |  it?                      |
   Red-winged       |  Conk-a-ree               | Described by phrases
   Blackbird        |                           | or sounds
                    |                           |
   Rose-breasted    |  Cheerio Charlie, how's   | Robin and Robin-like
   Grosbeak         |  Mary                     | songs
                    |                           |
   Rufous-sided     |  Drink your tea-ee-ee-e   | Described by phrases
   Towhee           |                           | or sounds
                    |                           |
   Scarlet Tanager  |  Like a hoarse and raspy  | Robin and Robin-like
                    |        Robin              |       songs
                    |                           |
   Screech Owl      |  Mournful whinney         | Name description of
                    |                           | call or song
                    |                           |
   Song Sparrow     |  Maid, maids, maids, put  | Sparrow
                    |   on your tea kettle-     |
                    |   ettle-ettle             |
                    |                           |
   Tufted Titmouse  |  Peter, peter, peter      | Described by phrases
                    |                           | or sounds
                    |                           |
   Veery            |  Vee-ur, fee-ur, feer,    | Sounds its own name
                    |  feer, feer               |
                    |                           |
   Warbling Vireo   |  Iggley, pigelly,         | Described by phrases
                    |  wigelly, pig             | or sounds
                    |                           |
   Whip-poor-Will   |  Whip-poor-Will, Whip-    | Sounds its own name
                    |  poor-Will, Whip-poor-    |
                    |  Will                     |
                    |                           |
   White-breasted   |  A nasal "Yank, yank,     | Described by phrases
   Nuthatch         |  yank"                    | or sounds
                    |                           |
   White-eyed Vireo |  Chick-a-per-wee-oo-      | Vireo
                    |  chick                    |
                    |                           |
   White-throated   |  Old Sam Peabody,         | Sparrow
   Sparrow          |  Peabody, Peabody         |
                    |                           |
   Willow           |  Fitz-bew                 |       Flycatcher
   Flycatcher       |                           |
                    |                           |
   Worm-eating      |  If I see him, I'll       | Warbler
   Warbler          |  squeeze him and squeeze  |
                    |  him til he squirts       |
                    |                           |
   Yellow Warbler   |  Sweet, sweet, sweet, I'm |
   Warbler          |        so sweet           |
                    |                           |
   Yellow-throated  |  Three-eight              | Vireo
   Vireo            |                           |

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